HIST 2110 Survey Of United States History

Question:

You will be examining the motivations for English colonization, as well the organization and government in several English colonies.

Also, you will examine the causes and effects of the American Revolution on the American people.

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Answer:

Introduction

At the beginning 17th century, there was no permanent settlement by the English in America.

However, the English outpaced their rivals in the next century, encouraging the emigration from the Dutch, French, and Spanish.

Each country sent large numbers to help populate the land.

England experienced an increase in population and increased poverty during the 16th Century.

English migrants began to arrive in the Chesapeake Bay colonies, Maryland and Virginia.

These people were once employed in the tobacco industry (Greer (2012)

This study examines both the motivations and the organization of the various English colonies.

It will also describe the causes and the impact of the American revolution on the new United States.

English Colonization and Reasons

English imperialism was motivated by political motives. The economic benefits associated with colonization were part of the English political motivations.

Because of their desire for trade, the English maintained high trade chances in comparison to other European countries.

The imperial government and private companies sought to maximize their profits.

Economic expansion meant the use of cheap labour and control over precious metals and land. Also, the control over markets was essential for the purchase and sale of goods.

The English believed that they were superior to other groups and nations due to their imperial power and patriotism.

English used to believe that conquest would eventually bring the culture of success to those who were less fortunate.

The belief, which was part racist belief, was held by Europeans during the 19th Century.

English believed that inferior races should be conquered in order to make them civilized.

Europeans were influenced by ethnocentrism, which led to the belief that one race or nation is better than the rest.

Patriotism and increasing imperialism is a matter for security, prestige, and national pride.

English wanted to increase the number strategic territories while simultaneously granting access to armies and navies from around the world.

The empire was also looking to expand while simultaneously defending its territories (Colonialism & Imperialism 2018).

English colonization of North America was driven by social pressures. The price rise began with the triple and doubling of commodities.

Inflation occurs when goods become more expensive and people demand more money.

Additionally, this can lead to exploration of new worlds.

Most people who arrived in the New World did not come from the aristocratic sphere.

They were sailors, colonizers, and artisans.

They wanted a better quality of life.

It was the agricultural revolution that led to higher rates of production.

Incorporating land owned by landowners will yield a high agricultural yield.

The European society was able to transition into an agricultural economy through exploration of the New World.

Many people became vagrants to find work.

Description and Economic System. Social Characteristics. Political Systems.

Table 1: English colonies at American (Roper (2015))

Economic Systems

Social Characteristics

Political Systems

* Indigo, tobacco and rice are the main cash crops

* Labour relationship was racial and gendered.

* It had trade relationships with New England.

* Family structure – patriarchal family

* Class system- common labourer to gentleman

* Cultural practices – Based on Calvinist theory

* It was the first chartered colonies with a board or governors that were not located in England.

* The governor of colony and other governors were elected by members of Puritan churches.

* Rubber trees, oil seeds sisal, sugarcane and tobacco.

* Labour relationship was racial and gendered.

* Theological belief- Anglican Christian.

* Family structure – patriarchal system

* Class systems- slaves existed, free blacks, farmers and middling people, gentry

* Europeans can also use cultural practices

* Virginia was the first state to allow self-government, and it later became a slave society.

The Carolinas

* Cotton and tobacco are cash crops.

* Labour relationship was racial and gendered.

* The Anglican Church – Christians

* Family structure – patriarchal structure

* Class systems- pyramid (wealthy/middle and poor)

* The fundamental constitution allowed land ownership.

This was later transferred to the plantation systems.

* Slavery was the cornerstone of the political system.

Major Ideas and Events that Led to the American Revolution

Factors- Both women and men colonized the New World to enjoy newfound freedom.

In the second part, the establishment of the colonial legislatures created a sense of independence among the English. This allowed them to bypass their laws and create their own troops.

The English didn’t want to become involved in the American colonies prior to the French and Indian wars and had a relaxed attitude toward establishing regulations (Let.rug.nl 2018, 2018).

British attitudes to the Indian war and French wars have changed. Britain needed money to pay its debts.

Enlightenment, a cultural movement, was born in the 1600s and 1800s.

John Locke and other writers who were part of this movement discussed issues such as the consent of the governed, and the limited government.

This thinking altered the base of freedom and liberty. People wanted to be free from British rule (Bailyn 2017).

Events- The intolerable act of 1774 was a collection of laws that is also known as coercive act. It was passed in response the Boston tea party.

Boston tea party in 1773 was an retaliation against the tea act patriots. The event ended with the dump of British tea into Boston harbour.

Tea act of 1773. This act gave the British East India Company complete control over American tea trade.

Boston massacre of 1770. In Boston, an angry mob confronted British soldiers.

Five colonists were murdered in that incident.

The Townshend Acts (1767) required that the colonists provide food and shelter for British soldiers.

The stamp act of 1765 required that printed materials, including newspapers, be printed on British paper.

This stamp also required that such papers be stamped with a tax stamp.

Currency act 1751 and 1764 regulate the issue of money by colonists.

Sugar act of 1764 levied tax on sugar imported from colonists (Bemis 2013).

Social Impact Of The American Revolution

Native Americans- Native Americans considered the Americans to be aggressively expanding westward.

Most Native Americans supported the British side during the American Revolution.

Names for Native Americans include tribes of Iroquois Nation Creek, Cherokee and Cherokee.

Oneida took over the American side but still lost the battle after the war ended.

Treaty of Paris ignored the Native Americans who helped the British.

According to the treaty of Paris, the Americans will treat Native Americans like a conquered nation.

The land lying between the Appalachian Mountains & Mississippi river was granted by the Americans to what actually belonged the Indian Territory (Washington & Army (2014)).

African Americans- The abolitionist movement against slavery was initiated. It was against the contradiction of “life liberty and pursuit of happiness,” which was declared in the Declaration of independence.

Quakers established an antislavery society back in 1775.

The movement grew most strongly in the northern states.

If African Americans fought against the British or the Americans, they were released.

The growth of black communities freed from slavery was slow.

The importation and use of slaves was forbidden in 1807 (Robinson 2013).

Women-Women became more independent and self-sufficient during wartime.

Women were required to run farms and households.

The idea of “Republican Motherhood,” a rising trend, eventually led to the idea for educating women (Klepp 2017).

Conclusion

It is clear that both the imperial government of these governments and private companies wanted to maximize their profits.

Economic expansion was dependent on the availability of cheap labour, control and management of land, precious metals, and natural resources, as also the control of markets via the purchase and sale of products.

Exploration of the New World enabled the European society transform into an agricultural economy.

Many people became vagrants to find work.

People were forced to migrate to the New World, and find new jobs by the larger sections of the English poor.

Reference

Writing North America in seventeenth-century America: English representations printed and in manuscript.

The ideological origins and history of the American Revolution.

Harvard University Press.

Diplomacy in the American Revolution.

Read Books Ltd.

Colonialism, Imperialism.

EGO.

Integration and commons during the colonization of North America.

The American Historical Review 117(2): 365-386.

Revolutionary Conceptions: Women Fertility and Family Limitation in America 1760-1820.

UNC Press Books.

(2018).

Black movements in America.

The English Empire in America (1602-1658): Beyond Jamestown.

Introduction to American Colonial History.

The American Revolution: 1775-1783.

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