ISCG6402 Network Administration And Support

Question:

Redundancy of services and fault tolerance are critical aspects in any network environment.

The redundancy concepts in Client / Server environments are discussed for essential services like DNS, DHCP, Domain. Also, how can they be achieved under Windows Client / Server networks.

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Answer:

Introduction

Information technology has seen tremendous improvements over the past few decades.

The major area of technology development has been in the network system (Elhart et. al., 2016,).

A network is an arrangement that allows the various components of the network data to be shared.

The network interface allows network components organized in computer systems to exchange information.

The media that is linked or distant can be used to create the connections between the components.

However, there have been some issues with the advancement of the technologies.

Redundancy and fault tolerance are two major features of networking technology.

The report contains information on the redundancy of services in the network, fault tolerance and implications.

The report includes a description of the topics as well as the identification of any issues that have been raised by these factors.

The report includes a brief explanation on the client/server model, the redundancy of the network built in a client server architecture, and it also discusses the redundancy issues and possible solutions.

The service redundancy is the process by which additional network components, software and hardware are added to the network.

It’s a technique to ensure system accessibility in the case of failure of one of the network units.

It is a technique for system failover (Hermans, et al. 2014).

Big business frameworks are structured to allow for large-scale service redundancies.

It acts as a support instrument, allowing for rapid swapping of system operations onto repeating foundations in the event that a system fails.

The redundancy process is typically accomplished by the expansion of the network’s communication channel. This is performed through redundant standby routers, switches, and other devices.

The substitute path can be quickly transmitted to the primary path in case it is unavailable. This will ensure that there is minimal downtime, and allow for system administrations to continue.

Network Fault Tolerance

Fault Tolerance refers to the property that allows a system to continue working legally in the event of a failure of one of its segments (Kuzlu. Pipattanasomporn & Rahman (2014)).

If the working quality is affected by any method, then the failure in a network corresponds to the extent of that component’s failure. This contrasts with an efficient composed system, where even a small amount can cause an aggregate breakdown.

This is particularly important for critical systems that are high-accessible.

Graceful degradation is the ability to keep a system’s usefulness intact even when they fail.

A fault-tolerant structure allows the system to continue with its intended operation, even at a reduced level, rather than failing completely if a part of it fails.

This term is commonly used to describe computer systems designed to continue operations, even though they might be slower or have a larger expansion in the event of a partial failure.

This means that the entire system is not stopped because of any issues with the product or equipment.

If the system is small enough, it can adapt to internal failures by anticipating good conditions and designing the system to adapt. Then, the system can become error-free.

A secondary option for a system is to use duplication in it if it fails or it becomes too costly to make it solid.

The system must be capable of using inversion to fall back into an experimental mode if the results of a failure are so severe.

Understanding the concepts behind the client/server architecture is crucial for redundancy in the network design (Biondi_Zoccai, et al. 2014).

The client-server model refers to a distributed application structure which distributes workloads or packets between resource providers (or administration), and clients (or administration requesters).

Although clients and servers are often able to share a computer’s partitioned equipment, both clients and server can live in the same system.

Clients may share protocols between servers that run at least one of their server programs.

The client doesn’t share any of the properties with the server, but requests assistance or administration from the server.

The client machines approach the requests and the sessions begin.

Email, organize print, and the World Wide Web are examples of system applications that use the client-server model.

Architecture provides the link between the collaboration of applications.

Server segments give permission to clients.

Servers can be grouped according to the administrations they provide.

For example, a web server can serve pages while a document servers can store computer records.

An asset could be any product or electronic part of the server machine, from information and projects to processors and capacity devices.

An administration is when properties are shared between servers.

No matter whether a computer is a client or a server it is an administration. It is determined by the type of application that needs the administrative capabilities.

One computer can run both document server programming and web server simultaneously, serving distinct information to clients submitting different types of requests.

Client programming can communicate with server programming on a related computer (Ramanthan, et al. 2015).

Server-to-server network systems are used to refer to correspondence between servers. This is used, for instance, to synchronize data.

An administration is the deliberation about server properties. A client doesn’t have to be concerned with how the server performs, while fulfilling the request and conveying the result.

The client only needs to be able to comprehend the result in light the notable application convention. That is, the data and the organization of the information for administrators.

In a request response informing design, clients and servers exchange messages.

The client sends a request and the server replies.

This is called process correspondence.

To ensure that the customer and server are aware of what’s in store, both the computer and customer must agree on a common protocol.

An interchanges procedure is used to define the protocols and standards of each system (Grunewaid and al., 2013).

All client server protocols function in the application level.

The application layer protocol is the foundation of the discourse.

A server might implement an application programming protocol (API) in order to formalize further the information trade.

The API acts as a reflection layer to allow access to administrative functions.

API encourages parsing.

The API abstracts access to encourage cross-stage information trading.

Servers may receive requests from multiple clients in a short amount of time.

Redundancy in The Network

The network redundancy allows the system to use alternate sources of communication to keep the networks running (Xia & Xia 2016, 2016).

These additional resources are used to support the network in the event of a single network unit failing.

The redundancy is also beneficial for the various protocols and services in the network.

It is possible to maintain the protocols and their properties across the network even in the face of severe network disruptions.

This would be the backbone of the network’s operation.

This is in addition to the fact that the client server architecture requires redundancies in order to ensure the availability of back-up resources within the network model.

Redundancy of server servers means that an application can be stopped running if it is not accessible due to power failure, network connection loss or another reason (Kapucu Hu and Khosa 2016, 2016).

This applies to both administration servers and design servers.

When the assigned essential ceases to work, reinforcement servers take over as clients.

The very rare chance that an essential server goes down, the main server to be used as a reinforcement server takes control immediately and powers the application until it returns to normal.

Questions regarding the Service Redundancy within The Network

While there are many utilities for redundancies of the client server architecture, there have been many problems with the redundancies of the network.

They can also occur because of a different path between switches (Bennett and al., 2015).

However, loop can be avoided with Spanning Tree Protocol. This protocol is only applicable when the port ports are not blocked by any other switches.

Layer z loops can cause broadcast storms.

These gadgets use layer z loops to send data requests between switches.

Broadcast Storms can occur at the moment layer 0 loops occur and a switch continuously communicates an edge.

A system with layer u loops can also have copy uncast frames.

This could lead to deception issues as the Uncast casings could end up at the same point.

Layer z loops instances will overload the system and exhaust available data transfer capacities. They will also lead to wastage of data which will ultimately reduce client’s efficiency, and flexibility.

Solution of the Problems

Although the process is highly efficient, if it’s not properly implemented, the system will be void of credibility.

Ribesse et. al. (2015) suggest that there are several methods to address the issue.

Microsoft Research India has developed a compression technology that eliminates redundancy. It can be used in large business environments without the need for WAN-speeding host services.

Coconet for Content Compression in Networks, is the name for this venture.

The researchers monitored 11 locations of corporate enterprises for a few hours. They also monitored the University of Wisconsin access link, where some of their understudy’s participated in the venture.

Microsoft specialists found that 75 percent of the data transfer bandwidth saved by not using excess disposal devices on a network was due to the elimination of redundant byte strings from every client’s movement. (Nabatchi 2014).

Microsoft scientists call this intra-client repetition. It is when a client receives different records from the server or sets off to different Web locations over and over again for a refresh.

This gave rise to the possibility of moving the redundancy elimination function from programming running on the end host to the system. This reduces the need for expensive quickening agents gadgets or any other “middle box” on the WAN.

This consolidation movement has increased the demand for gadgets such as WAN quickening agent devices, which, in addition to other benefits, reduce redundancy in system activities (Giest (2015)).

Microsoft Research India designed the product to be completely topsy-turvy, so that all the preparations are done at the computer.

Because the excess at the server ends is evacuated before encryption, it doesn’t need to be confused with encryption.

The bundles contain 32 bytes of redundancy that the host administration can detect and control.

Microsoft Research India did not create the innovation to address “middle user redundancy”, which occurs when clients ask for similar information.

Apart from WAN quickening agent box boxes, there are many advancements that deal with this issue. For example, the BranchCache highlight is now part of Windows 7.

These features could help to reduce redundancies in your system.

It has been suggested that the Research center could also overcome the limitations of TCP packets being broken apart before they are sent.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be stated that information technology’s advancements have been highly efficient in recent times.

There has also been an increase in the development of networking technologies.

This report also provides concepts for the two most critical factors in networking.

This report provides information on the redundancy and fault tolerance methods for networks.

This report outlines the characteristics of both networking features and provides a definition.

This report has the client server architecture as well as the redundancy associated with this model.

The report includes the concept of redundancy for servers. Additionally, the report addresses issues related to redundancies within the network as well as the reasons behind them.

The report also discusses the possibilities for resolving the redundancies occurring in the system. Following these techniques could help to improve implementations and resolve issues that may be related to the redundancy within the network.

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